It was this link that enabled Marx to formulate a concept of praxis that moved beyond the parameters Hegel and Feuerbach had established. I have a precursor, and what a precursor! I hardly knew Spinoza: that I should have turned to him just now, was inspired by 'instinct'. Not only is his overtendency like mine — namely, to make all knowledge the most powerful affect — but in five main points of his doctrine I recognize myself; this most unusual and loneliest thinker is closest to me precisely in these matters: he denies the freedom of the will, teleology, the moral world-order, the unegoistic, and evil.
Even though the divergencies are admittedly tremendous, they are due more to the difference in time, culture, and science. In summa: my lonesomeness, which, as on very high mountains, often made it hard for me to breathe and make my blood rush out, is now at least a twosomeness.
I hold up before myself the images of Dante and Spinoza, who were better at accepting the lot of solitude. Of course, their way of thinking, compared to mine, was one which made solitude bearable Four pairs it was that did not deny themselves to my sacrifice: Epicurus and Montaigne , Goethe and Spinoza, Plato and Rousseau , Pascal and Schopenhauer.
With these I must come to terms when I have long wandered alone; they may call me right and wrong; to them will I listen when in the process they call each other right and wrong. Perhaps no two philosophers are as akin as Spinoza and Nietzsche, yet no two are as opposed. If Spinoza initiated the modern philosophy of immanence and undergirds it throughout, then Nietzsche brings it to its most radical conclusion—and, as we shall see, turns this conclusion against Spinoza himself.
Nietzsche explicitly recognizes his debt and kinship to Spinoza. Speaking of his "ancestors," Nietzsche at various times gives several lists, but he always mentions Spinoza and Goethe—and always as a pair.
This is no accident, for Nietzsche sees Goethe as incorporating Spinoza and as anticipating his own "Dionysian" ideal. Now, if instituting comparisons in both directions, we place the lowest and most ape-like men the Austral Negroes, Bushmen, and Andamans, etc. Translated from the German by E.
Ray Lankester; New York: D. Appleton, Haeckel: "It was not until the middle of the seventeenth century that pantheism was exhibited in its purest form by the great Baruch Spinoza; he gave for the totality of things a definition of substance in which God and the world are inseparably united. The clearness, confidence, and consistency of Spinoza's monistic system are the more remarkable when we remember that this gifted thinker of two hundred and fifty years ago was without the support of all those sound empirical bases which have been obtained in the second half of the nineteenth century.
In his stately pantheistic system the notion of the world the universe, or the cosmos is identical with the all-pervading notion of God; it is at one and the same time the purest and most rational monism and the clearest and most abstract monotheism. I would be writing more as to the possible advantages there might be in presenting to the public Spinoza's system in its true form and according to the intrinsic coherence of its parts.
Its spectre has been haunting Germany for lo these many years, in all shapes and sizes and is regarded with reverence by believers and doubters alike. I am speaking not just of the petty-minded but of people with the finest minds. Lawson and C. German Life and Letters 62 4 : — Breslau: Druck von O.
Da Spinoza a Goethe. La poesia dell'infinito. If this happened by chance, I suffered agonies. Herder often used to say mockingly that I had learned all my Latin from Spinoza, for that was the only Latin book he had ever seen me reading. He did not realize how carefully I had to guard myself against the classics, and that it was sheer anxiety which drove me to take refuge in the abstractions of Spinoza. Letters from Italy , — Translated from the German by W. Happily, I had already prepared if not fully cultivated myself on this side, having in some degree appropriated the thoughts and mind of an extraordinary man, and though my study of him had been incomplete and hasty, I was yet already conscious of important influences derived from this source.
This mind, which had worked upon me thus decisively, and which was destined to affect so deeply my whole mode of thinking, was Spinoza. After looking through the world in vain, to find a means of development for my strange nature, I at last fell upon the Ethics of this philosopher. Of what I read out of the work, and of what I read into it, I can give no account.
Enough that I found in it a sedative for my passions, and that a free, wide view over the sensible and moral world, seemed to open before me.
Your own fantasy is rich enough for the invention of the particular: nothing is better suited to entice your fantasy, to stimulate and nourish it, than the poetic creations of other artists. But in Spinoza you find the beginning and the end of all fantasy, the universal ground on which your particularity rests — and you should welcome precisely this separation of that which is originary and eternal in fantasy from everything particular and specific. Because of his objectivity in this respect, I chose him as a representative of all the others. The whole of Goethe's poetry is filled with the same spirit that is wafted toward us from the writings of Spinoza.
There is no doubt whatsoever that Goethe paid undivided allegiance to Spinoza's doctrine. At any rate, he occupied himself with it throughout his entire life; in the first part of his memoirs as well as in the last volume, recently published, he frankly acknowledged this. I don't remember now where I read that Herder once exploded peevishly at the constant preoccupation with Spinoza, "If Goethe would only for once pick up some other Latin book than Spinoza! Melamed: "The rediscovery of Spinoza by the Germans contributed to the shaping of the cultural destinies of the German people for almost two hundred years.
Just as at the time of the Reformation no other spiritual force was as potent in German life as the Bible, so during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries no other intellectual force so dominated German life as Spinozism. Spinoza became the magnet to German steel. Except for Immanuel Kant and Herbart , Spinoza attracted every great intellectual figure in Germany during the last two centuries, from the greatest, Goethe, to the purest, Lessing.
All of the principles in question went on to play important roles within German Idealism and German Romanticism. Spinoza's contribution to those movements was thus far greater than has usually been realized. Oxford University Press, Michael N. Forster : " As is well known, a great flowering of Neo-Spinozism occurred in German philosophy and literature in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries.
Spinoza is, among the great classical thinkers, one of the least accessible because of his rigid adherence to the geometric form of argumentation, in which form he obviously saw somewhat of an insurance against fallacies. In fact, Spinoza thereby made it difficult for the reader who all too quickly loses patience and breath before he reaches the heart of the philosopher's ideas. Many have attempted to present Spinoza's thoughts in modern language—a daring as well as irreverent enterprise which offers no guarantee against misinterpretation.
New Humanist newhumanist. Retrieved 12 December In: Rosi Braidotti ed. London: Routledge, , p. Passies en politiek. Oxford: Oxford University Press, This wave was largely a result of Herder's embrace of neo-Spinozism in God: Some Conversations and in Goethe's case, Herder's sympathy with Spinozism even before that work. Arguably, it is only now then that the scope of his thought and its relevance to our social and political existence can be truly appreciated, at a historical juncture when the communicative power of the multitude and of what Marx called the general intellect is so intensified that the physics, ethics, ontology and politics of Spinoza what are ultimately indissociable facets of his philosophizing can be thought simultaneously.
Althusser, of course, approached Spinoza's work philosophically—as a detour, seeking grounds for a critique of idealism, en route to a properly materialist Marxist philosophy—but also critically, noting for example its lack of a theory of contradiction.
Yet, as with Althusser or Deleuze, Lordon's perspective would remain anchored in the affirmation of Spinoza as the thinker who can emancipate us from the delusions of free will or untrammelled individual choice, allowing us to grasp human struggles for existence in a disabused materialist fashion. While after Husserl 's Paris lectures on the Meditations and Sartre 's publication of The Transcendence of the Ego , France experienced a phenomenological Descartes revival, Spinoza research [especially in France] remained, until the mids, a largely underdeveloped field.
In the course of a fulminant boost in reception in and , in almost a single year, the studies of Martial Gueroult, Alexandre Matheron, Gilles Deleuze and Bernard Rousset were published.
Under the influence of Gueroult's structural-genetic reading, they displayed an unprecedented systematic precision to position Spinoza's thought against Descartes — particularly, against the doctrine of two substances, the depotentialization of nature, the use of the medieval concept of contingency and the idea of the incomprehensibility of a God of arbitrary decree implicated in the doctrine of the creation of the eternal truths.
In comparison Althusser's reading of Spinoza is characterized by an inverse proportion of philosophical precision and the strategic positioning of Spinoza in Marxism. Retrieved 18 December In: Michael Della Rocca ed. Oxford University Press, , pp. Baruch de Spinoza Benedictus de Spinoza. Spinoza's philosophical system Spinozism Spinozist rationalism Spinozist monism Spinozist metaphysics Spinozistic epistemology three kinds of knowledge Spinozistic ethics Spinozistic theory of the emotions Spinozistic conception of power potentia cogitandi , potentia agendi Spinoza's conception of freedom Spinoza's conception of true religion Spinoza's concept of substance Spinoza's concept of attribute Natura naturans Natura naturata Affect Immanence Conatus Multitude Scientia intuitiva Intuitive knowledge Sub specie aeternitatis Sub specie temporis Causa sui Cause of itself Deus sive Natura God or Nature Amor Dei intellectualis Intellectual love of God Libertas philosophandi Freedom to philosophize Omnis determinatio est negatio Non ridere, non lugere, neque detestari, sed intelligere.
Commons Wikiquote Wikisource texts. Hidden categories: Dynamic lists Articles with attributed pull quotes. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. Shipped from US within 10 to 14 business days. Established seller since Seller Inventory IQ Book Description Jazzybee Verlag. Seller Inventory ING Language: German.
Brand new Book. Seller Inventory APC Delivered from our UK warehouse in 4 to 14 business days. Seller Inventory M Theologisch-Politische Abhandlung German Edition. Baruch de Spinoza. Publisher: Jazzybee Verlag , This specific ISBN edition is currently not available. This is a sort of knowledge that, somehow, relates particular things to the nature of God.
In the third part of the Ethics , Spinoza argues that all things, including human beings, strive to persevere in their being. This is usually taken to mean that things try to last for as long as they can. Spinoza explains how this striving " conatus " underlies our emotions love, hate, joy, sadness and so on. Our mind is in certain cases active, and in certain cases passive. In so far as it has adequate ideas it is necessarily active, and in so far as it has inadequate ideas, it is necessarily passive.
The fourth part analyzes human passions, which Spinoza sees as aspects of the mind that direct us outwards to seek what gives pleasure and shun what gives pain. The "bondage" he refers to is domination by these passions or " affects " as he calls them. Spinoza considers how the affects, ungoverned, can torment people and make it impossible for mankind to live in harmony with one another. The fifth part argues that reason can govern the affects in the pursuit of virtue, which for Spinoza is self-preservation : only with the aid of reason can humans distinguish the passions that truly aid virtue from those that are ultimately harmful.