One important contribution to the stakeholder theory is the one of R. The three criteria offered by R. Providing a link between CSR and the energy sector by introducing previous research has a special significance in determining which gaps are and how they can best be addressed. Only one SOC among the respondents has integrated corporate social responsibility. The way it practices CSR is difficult to appreciate because the company answered only part of the questions.
Danilet and Mihai conducted a research study on the disclosure of practices for a sample of 3 Romanian major companies OMV Petrom, Termoelectrica and Romgaz operating in the energy sector and stated that the legislation allows interpretation. The study uses reports and CSR contents available on-line. Content analysis of Termoelectrica S. The emphasis of the study is not on stakeholders and related activities. Authors concluded that the analyzed companies are at different CSR development stages. It is impossible to understand from the text how the authors chose to analyze this company and the reader is not familiarized with the sector addressed by the research.
There are no research questions or hypotheses to be demonstrated, but also no limits presented. No comparison with other companies or even with the same practices of the OMV Group in other countries is given. When studying it, they use information only about one company — S. Electrica S. It is difficult to understand how researchers have the permission to use a sample consisting of consumers of Electrica S.
A and their personal data. This company was privatized, but the State still owns a share of it. In the research conducted by Buturoaga , the same company refused to respond to CSR questions. Other research studies known by the author when elaborating this study were: Ranangen and Zobel research, which targets extractive industries and focuses mainly on CSR practices in Africa, Oceania and South America.
Findings suggest that community involvement and development, as well as environmental issues, seem to be the focus for mining companies. Hori et al analyzed the relation between CSR and energy savings through a questionnaire survey in two Asian cities and findings suggest that a positive relation exists between the two, so policies to encourage CSR are recommended. Considering the above research, the author of this paper has identified the need for additional research to determine how CSR is approached from the stakeholder perspective, which stakeholders count more for the energy sector and the business-related CSR practices to be proposed and followed.
The aim of this article is to address the question and sub-questions by using information made publically available on the websites of key companies in the energy sector operating in a region of Romania which plays the leading energetic role South-West Oltenia Regional Development Agency, Domestic companies seem to dominate the sector, except for: OMV Petrom and CEZ, which are private companies, part of groups of companies from Central Europe and which purchased in the past, one per each, their SOCs established and functional during the communist period with the same business activity.
Companies within the sample will be analyzed by being marked with a letter, A, B, C…, according to the order of those stated when we named the companies Table 2.
Corruption affecting the public sector in Romania, according to Transparency , scored 46 points in and it should be noted that some companies do not invest in countries with a corruption risk under 60 points. In order to determine which stakeholders count more for the energy sector, an industry specific understanding of CSR is important Decker, , so the author had to consider an inventory of international companies operating in the energy sector.
A desk research on the latest global trends on a sector level and a study of relevant documentation was performed. Given the fact that there is no agreed academic definition of CSR, this research will follow a more practical approach based on stakeholder theory, which is the most influential in CSR and which applied to the company level is appreciated to contribute to the rise of corporate economic performance Donalson and Preston, The research was performed in February The date of the latest update of each visited website differed from the date when the research was conducted.
The author looked for relevant information about CSR or a related terminology, like: social responsibility; sustainability; sponsorship and donations; corporate citizenship; employee volunteering which are often used as synonymous with CSR Carroll, The results were quantitatively and qualitatively processed.
CSR is often used synonymously with other terms Carroll, and sustainability is one of them. A summary of the literature on the sustainability topic will not be provided, as it is beyond the scope of this article. In order to address the limits given by diverse interpretations of the terms: CSR and stakeholders, the author looked for any related terminology. Company involvement, through the answers of the person in charge with CSR, could reveal relevant information, but it was unlikely to receive any answers.
Another research Buturoaga, was conducted in the Romanian energy sector, but with a focus on state-owned companies, out of which some are targeted by the present research: Hidroelectrica and CEOltenia.
That research was conducted on a representative sample, on a national level, of SOCs under central public authority. Moreover, one private company within this sample was also the subject of another research based on a questionnaire Buturoaga, b where 8 large companies and 8 SMEs were investigated in order to identify the benefits and reasons of integrating CSR and its answer eventually came following a lot of persistence OMV Petrom. This company provided its answers also regarding CSR reporting and benefits of such an action.
Even though this information, which is based on what companies posted on their websites, is limited, it is considered to be more reliable than interviews with persons in charge who can choose from self-serving responses. The research uses publically available information posted on-line, on their websites, by investigated companies. Some limitation may come from the set questions which could be considered preconceived and expected to be in line with the presented theoretical outcomes.
The author also sought to explore new phenomena that will not necessarily come under the umbrella of the preset questions. Research on domestic vs. This research will be descriptive, it will offer a view of the CSR trends of the companies in the Romanian energy sector, but will also refer to instrumental and normative strands. According to the information posted on their websites, there is no section dedicated to CSR or a related terminology by companies A and B.
No concrete examples were offered. Nothing was said about the results and impact of these projects. In addition, money for rebuilding the infrastructure was provided. No data were offered regarding the impact of these actions. Modernization measures led to some notable results presented therein and which positively impact on emissions, dust, energy efficiency, water consumption and safety.
Company D applied measures to reduce the impact of mining activity and it sustained to have restored the unencumbered land to agricultural and forestry circuit after releasing it from its technological use, as well as its modelling and greening, to comply with the national law. Up to the present, 3. In June , the company provided a plot of land for reforestation purposes within a project initiated by an association in partnership with the civil society in Gorj County to plant No other information was offered.
Other achievements in period were: NO x reduction; restoring two plots of land of ha and ha to the economic circuit. No data about used biomass were offered for previous years. Company D financed and executed the construction of the water supply systems in Gorj County, affected by its coal mining activity. It still has works in progress in villages: cemetery, water network, sewerage system, wastewater treatment plant, dams for river protection — all of them in Gorj County. For , the company announced that they made no sponsorships. Ratings of CSR actions are presented in Table 3, using a binary representation with the items looked for on one axis and on the other with companies within the sample , with one in case of data availability on company public website, or zero otherwise.
These ratings report only the findings based on the dates presented by companies on their websites. The total score obtained in this table by a company cannot be used as a measure of the overall CSR performance of that business. The last report, from , is GRI G4 and is displayed on the website. A stakeholder consultation and materiality process was held in , during which material issues were ranked as follows: high importance health and safety; oil spill; security; business ethics and corruption; energy efficiency; regulatory environment; employee attraction, retention and training; impacts of climate change; governance; community engagement; diversity; human rights , moderate importance water management; renewable energy; supply chain management; research and development and low importance unconventional energy sources; biodiversity.
Only 2 companies defined CSR on their websites: company C defined it as an action, the help provided to those in special situations, involvement; company D defined it in relation with environmental protection and its involvement in local communities where it is present. Stakeholders were identified only by company F, which also offers a map of these groups. Stakeholders groups are then named, but they are not ranked taking into consideration their relevance to the company.
Company F has also implemented an Antidiscrimination Directive. In , the company made an internal study about gender diversity. Health and education were also considered by the company F through many actions already presented in this section by the researcher.
The practice of. The practice of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in the Middle East is explored in this volume, through a unique compilation of data and perspectives from authors living and working in the region.
Stakeholders engaged by company F are those considered relevant for each project. The company has developed beginning with an internal data base to help their employees in identifying the relevant stakeholders.
Its website states that stakeholders participated in discussions regarding their needs and viewpoints and interactions were formalized. Regarding the dialogue of the company with its stakeholders, we found out, from company website, that representatives of national local authorities of the communities in which the company has operations had the possibility to participate, for 2 consecutive years , benefiting from the financial support of company F, in an entrepreneurship education project and to learn how to draw up projects to access European funds.
Also as part of its dialogue with the civil society, the company held a meeting with 24 NGOs in The information on community relations annual plans for each of these centres and on the stakeholders consulted and involved could not be found. It can be argued that CSR should not interfere with profitability Crane et al, , but that it should be voluntarily integrated by any company into its strategy Galbreath, Five companies, 4 of which are SOCs, disclose no information on their websites regarding the stakeholders they manage, and provide no information regarding identification, prioritization, interaction, and engagement with them.